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PCORI Dissemination and Implementation Framework

PCORI’s (Patient-Centered Outcomes and Research Institute) Dissemination and Implementation Framework is a series of processes designed to facilitate the sharing of information and the adoption of new evidence to improve patient outcomes. The framework is an iterative process consisting of five core elements: Evidence Assessment, Audience Identification and Partner Engagement, Dissemination, Implementation, and Evaluation. Active engagement is a key component of the framework, as stakeholders such as key informants, communities, organizations, and agencies are considered partners throughout the entire process. Stakeholders provide input to researchers and receive feedback and information in return.

far fa-dollar-sign fa-sm Budget (e.g. personnel, space, equipment) Low Medium High far fa-user-clock Time per interaction I expect to engage stakeholders for... An hour or less Half a day A full day far fa-calendar-check Number of interactions I expect to interact with stakeholders... 1-2 times Appx. 5 times 10+ times Engagement Purposes far fa-scrubber Identify and explore new perspectives or understanding far fa-scrubber Develop research questions relevant to stakeholders far fa-scrubber Select outcomes and measures that matter to stakeholders far fa-scrubber Refine and help implement effective recruitment strategies far fa-scrubber Expand and diversify stakeholder outreach far fa-scrubber Investigate best ways to successfully implement a study based on stakeholder insights far fa-scrubber Describe findings in a way stakeholders can understand and use far fa-scrubber Disseminate findings to relevant audiences far fa-scrubber Design strategies for translating research into practice far fa-clock Time Frame

Generally months to years; Depends upon the nature of the study.

fal fa-tasks-alt Workload LIGHT MEDIUM HEAVY
Appropriate Applications More useful for: far fa-scrubber Receiving community participation in some or all aspects of the dissemination and implementation process far fa-scrubber Priority-setting and decision-making far fa-scrubber Disseminating results far fa-scrubber Implementing evidence-based strategies far fa-scrubber Implementing evidence-based strategies Less useful for: far fa-scrubber Quick and easy engagement far fa-scrubber Projects with limited resources in terms of time and money far fa-scrubber Gaining information to be used at the individual level Key Characteristics Resources Needed fas fa-money-bill-waveMoney far fa-scrubber Participant compensation far fa-scrubber Transportation far fa-scrubber Food and drink far fa-scrubber Childcare far fa-scrubber Other costs vary based on specific project requirements fas fa-paperclipMaterials and Resources far fa-scrubber Will likely need a comfortable and convenient space to hold meetings far fa-scrubber Other materialas and resources vary based on specific project requirements fas fa-usersPersonnel At least three team members are needed to form an I-CORP team and must fall into the following roles: far fa-scrubber Personnel to identify and recruit initial stakeholders far fa-scrubber Personnel to complete literature reviews far fa-scrubber Trained facilitators, experts in areas relevant to your topic/issue of focus far fa-scrubber Quantitative and qualitative methodological and analysis expertise far fa-scrubber Other personnel needs will vary based on specific project requirements How To

The PCORI Dissemination and Implementation Framework is not a one-size fits all approach. Below are some general guidelines to using this approach. Specific details will be determined by the nature of the project.

Define the issue or topic you plan to conduct dissemination - and implementation-related activities around. Establish a network of partners relevant to the topic at hand. These partners may be local, regional or even national. From this network, establish an advisory panel to review the progress of research, validate evidence before dissemination, and help make dissemination relevant to audiences. This panel should include members of the population impacted by your particular topic/issue. Engage stakeholders in evidence assessment: Plan for dissemination and implementation by engaging stakeholders to assess existing evidence related to the topic or issue. Stakeholders should include members of the advisory panel, study participants, partners, and other stakeholders, such as investigators who conducted the research. The group should include all relevant stakeholders to lend the evidence legitimacy among potential target audiences. Stakeholders can provide input on the following questions:
  1. What issues does the address for people, communities, and organizations?
  2. Is the evidence compelling enough to warrant dissemination?
  3. What would make this evidence more useful and relevant? What else, if anything, do decision makers need to know to be able to use the evidence?
  4. What concerns exist about the strength or external validity of the evidence?
Audience identification and partner engagement: Engage stakeholders to help identify the appropriate audience for dissemination and implementation activities, and the most effective partners for reaching these audiences. Stakeholders can help the research team gain the trust of these audiences, and can help identify the audiences' needs, values, motivations, and expectations. This information will inform how to best communicate with the audience and shape dissemination methods. In this step, incentives necessary for change should also be assessed - what are the resources necessary to adopt the evidence, and what are the opportunity costs associated with adoption? Dissemination: Engage stakeholders that represent the target audiences to plan and execute dissemination. These stakeholders can help to define dissemination goals and plan the dissemination strategy by identifying facilitators and barriers to adoption within each specific context or setting and informing strategies to overcome them. Stakeholders should also help to develop dissemination tactics by tailoring message content and delivery to the specific audience. Dissemination messages should make the case for evidence and enhance the accessibility and usability of evidence. Implementation: Collaborate with stakeholders who can facilitate adoption by influencing target audiences to incorporate the evidence into practice. Implementation may require multi-pronged strategies to facilitate implementation across different stakeholder groups. Evaluation: Continue to engage stakeholders throughout the evaluation. Stakeholders should be consulted on the identification of evaluation goals, selection of metrics and data sources, and interpretation of findings. Evaluation of dissemination and implementation strategies often requires both quantitative and qualitative methods. Both short- and long-term outcomes should be evaluated. Adapted from PCORI Dissemination and Implementation Toolkit (
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The Stakeholder Engagement Navigator is a service of the Data Science to Patient Value Initiative at the
University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

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